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Cystitis (0)

Cystitis is the medical term for inflammation of the bladder. Most of the time, the inflammation is caused by a bacterial infection, in which case it may be referred to as a urinary tract infection (UTI). A bladder infection can be painful and annoying, and can become a serious health problem if the infection spreads to your kidneys.

Less commonly, cystitis may occur as a reaction to certain drugs, radiation therapy or potential irritants, such as feminine hygiene spray, spermicidal jellies or long-term use of a catheter. Cystitis may also occur as a complication of another illness.

The usual treatment for bacterial cystitis is antibiotics. Other treatments are used for other types of cystitis.
Nonbacterial cystitis is currently a catchall term that comprises various medical disorders, including nonbacterial infectious (viral, mycobacterial, chlamydial, fungal) and noninfectious (radiation, chemical, autoimmune, hypersensitivity) cystitis, as well as interstitial cystitis. This terminology has been recently updated to painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC). PBS/IC describes a syndrome of pain and genitourinary symptoms, such as frequency, urgency, pain, dysuria, and nocturia, for which no etiology can be found. The phrase interstitial cystitis is now reserved for cases that involve symptoms of PBS/IC and the classic cystoscopic and histologic findings.

General symptoms of cystitis include urgency, frequency, dysuria, and, occasionally, hematuria, dyspareunia, abdominal cramps, and/or bladder pain and spasms. Establishing or excluding a specific diagnosis often requires recurrent cultures and various urologic procedures, including cystoscopy with bladder biopsies, various bladder tests, and immune system function examinations. If the diagnosis is interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC), treatment can be difficult and unrewarding. In recent years, recognition of the different possible causes of nonbacterial cystitis has allowed a more coherent approach to the diagnosis and treatment of this challenging entity.