Otsituimad TOP 5

Ovarian cancer (0)

Ovarian cancer is a cancerous growth arising from different parts of the ovary.

The most common form of ovarian cancer (≥80%) arises from the outer lining (epithelium) of the ovary.[1]. However, recent evidence shows cells that line the Fallopian tube (epithelium) also to be prone to develop into the same kind of cancer as seen in the ovaries. Since the ovaries and tubes are closely related to each other, it is hypothesized that these cells can mimic ovarian cancer.[2]. Other forms arise from the egg cells (germ cell tumor).

In 2004, in the United States, 25,580 new cases were diagnosed and 16,090 women died of ovarian cancer. The risk increases with age and decreases with pregnancy. Lifetime risk is about 1.6%, but women with affected first-degree relatives have a 5% risk. Women with a mutated BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene carry a risk between 25% and 60% depending on the specific mutation.[3] Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of death from cancer in women and the leading cause of death from gynecological cancer.[4]

In early stages ovarian cancer is associated with abdominal distension.[5]

10-year relative survival ranges from 84.1% in stage IA to 10.4% in stage IIIC.[6]

Ovarian cancer causes non-specific symptoms.[7] Early diagnosis would result in better survival, on the assumption that stage I and II cancers progress to stage III and IV cancers (but this has not been proven). Most women with ovarian cancer report one or more symptoms such as abdominal pain or discomfort, an abdominal mass, bloating, back pain, urinary urgency, constipation, tiredness and a range of other non-specific symptoms, as well as more specific symptoms such as pelvic pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding or involuntary weight loss.[8][9][10] There can be a build-up of fluid (ascites) in the abdominal cavity.