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Urinary bladder dysfunction (0)

Overactive bladder (OAB) is a urological condition defined by a set of symptoms: "urgency, with or without urge incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia." Frequency is usually defined as urinating more than 8 times a day. The International Continence Society(ICS) is responsible for this definition. There exists, however, some controversy over the use of this term because these symptoms taken in isolation may overlap with those of other bladder conditions, including interstitial cystitis, or rarely even bladder tumours.

The etiology of OAB is unclear, and indeed there may be multiple possible causes. It is often associated with detrusor overactivity, a pattern of bladder muscle contraction observed during urodynamics, and treatments for OAB, are usually synonymous with treatments for detrusor overactivity. OAB is distinct from stress urinary incontinence, but when they occur together is usually known as mixed incontinence.
Symptoms of bladder dysfunction can include:

* Frequency and/or urgency of urination
* Hesitancy in starting urination
* Frequent nighttime urination (known as nocturia)
* Incontinence (the inability to hold in urine)

These symptoms can be caused by a “spastic” bladder that is unable to hold the normal amount of urine, or by a bladder that does not empty properly and retains some urine in it. Retaining urine can lead to complications such as repeated infections or kidney damage.